Greek version
Phrygana Macchie Pine forest Firforest Oak thickets
Brushwood Riverine vegetation Chasmophytes Meadows


The term vegetation refers to the plant cover of an area and it is broader than the term flora. The vegetation on Mt Parnitha is the combined result of many factors, such as flora, general climate, topography, geological substrates, soil and also human impact, which is evident throughout history.

pine forestMountain vegetation varies according to the altitude. Three vegetation zones can be easily identified on Parnitha. The first vegetation zone extends from 300-800m and is dominated by pine forests, macchie and phrygana. Above 800m, pines create a mixed forest with firs. The second vegetation zone extends from 900-1.400m and is dominated by firforest, brushwood and grasslands. The third vegetation zone is observed on the highest mountain summits. It is vestigial and consists of spiny, cushion-like bushes. It probably originated from the reduction of the firforest in these areas and as such is not an authentic subalpine zone.

On the riverbanks a riverine vegetation occurs and on the mountain's steep, rocky slopes, numerous chasmophytes are found. In some areas, deciduous oaks grow. Also, the presence of several plateaus and meadows on the mountain is very important for the wildlife's survival and especially the population of the red deer.

Finally, several other forest species (such as Cedrus libani cedar of Lebanon, Quercus frainetto broadleaved oak, Q. petraea oak, Ulmus minor elm, Populus alba white poplar, Pinus pinea umbrella pine etc.) are planted either along roadsides or at recreation areas.

It is not easy to distinguish basic vegetation formations and its succession.phrygana Intermediate formations are created according to the grand relief, exposure, human impact (grazing, logging etc.) natural disasters (fires, insect epidemics etc.), geological substrates, erosion, water flow etc.




Play our game and meet the animals living on Mt Parnitha!



  Forest Service of Parnitha
  Thrakomakedonon Ave.    142, Acharnes. GR13601
   Athens, Greece.

Tel.: 0030 210 2434061-3 fax.: 0030 210 2434064



  Eirini Aplada, Biologist-M.Sc. Environmental Biology and Terrestrial and Marine Ecosystem Management